What is menthol?
On topical application, menthol dilates the blood vessels causing a sensation of coldness followed by an analgesic effect. Menthol also acts as a penetration enhancer. It increases the penetration of drugs when applied on the skin to give a faster onset of action. Menthol functions as a penetration enhancer either due to its vasodilatation property or since menthol readily penetrates the skin, it may reversibly change barrier-structures in the stratum corneum without affecting blood circulation at the site of application.
What is Camphor?
Camphor is known for its mild anesthetic activity. Camphor stimulates the central nervous system and is used as an anti-itch and counter-irritant product.
What is Methyl Salicylate?
Methyl Salicylate is used topically as a counter-irritant. On topical application, it is absorbed through the skin and is applied for the relief of pain in rheumatic conditions and painful muscle or joints. One of the most popular over-the counter group of topical agents are the salicylate-containing anti-inflammatory formulation, recommended for use in wide range of painful or inflammatory conditions in muscles and joints. It has been shown that first-pass metabolism exists in the skin with esterases rapidly hydrolyzing salicylate esters to release the active salicylate in both the epidermis and dermis.